Tuesday, December 30, 2014

El Salvador to launch Renewable Energy projects

El Salvador will launch at least 28 small and large projects of renewable energy next year, in their effort to have a cleaner, more sustainable energy system with nature.

During 2014 institutions like the National Energy Council (CNE) and the Executive Hydroelectric Commission (CEL), managed to consolidate several projects through tenders with domestic and foreign companies, which begin to be concretized in mid-2015.

Today El Salvador has a minimum production of solar or other renewable, but CNE authorities consider that the programs to be developed next year, future capacity will be 10.0 percent.

The director of renewable energies such advice, Carlos Najera told Notimex that within 28 small projects are of PV types and biodigesters, which total 11.5 megawatts, and operated in mid-July.

Likewise are managed four solar projects totaling 94 megawatts in the wholesale market to operate in 2016, explained Nájera, saying it is part of the strategy to diversify energy sources.

He announced other programs without tender procedures in which they will be used wind and solar energy resources to generate some 500 megawatts in the next two years.

The outlook for the Salvadoran government as part of energy policy it has set, is to continue working for the next year and next on 'the inclusion of renewable energies in the womb'.

'This means developing new processes unique to tender for non-conventional renewable energy, after finishing studies that help us determine the impacts', which may cause the power grid, said the expert.

According to the official, the aforementioned projects, the 2016 non-conventional renewable energy will account for 10.0 percent of the 'total generation capacity'.

He also revealed that the International Agency of the United States for Development (ISAID) and the German Cooperation Agency (GIZ) perform other studies of renewable energy for the next five years.

He stressed that El Salvador is in fifth place in the Latin America in relation to the 'best scores regarding the balance in clean energy investment', citing a report from this year's Inter-American Development Bank (IDB).

The IDB study says that the country escalated in investment grade and credits for clean energy and in fifth place thanks to the upturn since 2014 ?, through tenders for the supply of sustainable energy, he added.

At present, 50.0 percent of the energy distributed El Salvador is based on fossil fuel.

Highlighted the first big tender on sustainable renewable energy by nearly 100 who made this year the country through CEL, sparking offers over a thousand megabytes.

'We expect in the coming months replace 6.0 percent of the energy potential of renewable energy, "said Ibarra.

"We must replace fossil energy system and solar transit 'or other renewable and sustainable forms, the official said.

Ecuador to export electric energy in 2016

With the commissioning of hydro as Coca Codo Sinclair, Toachi-Pilatón, Manduriacu, which will provide more than 2,000 megawatts to the National Interconnected System Ecuador, the South American nation will become an exporter of electricity; as reported by the Ministry of Electricity and Renewable Energy.

To take advantage of the great water potential that exists in the country, the government began seven years ago the construction of eight hydroelectric mega-seven multipurpose projects that will provide enough energy to the territory.

Of these seven, the most important project is Coca Codo Sinclair, which will produce 1,500 megawatts (MW); are also Sopladora project of 487 MW; Minas San Francisco Azuay, which will provide 270 MW; Toachi Pilatón of 253 MW.

Funcionamieto also enter the Delsitanisagua project, 115 MW; Manduriacu, 60MW; Quijo. Which will produce 50MW; and Mazar Dudas, of 21MW. These projects will double the historical hydropower installed capacity.
Among multipurpose projects implemented by the Government are the Bulubulu flood control, flood control Canar, Trasvase Chongón-San Vicente, Duale-Vinces, Orangery, Carrizal-Chone and Multiple Chone, among others.

Currently, Ecuador has approximately 2,800 MW of hydropower and eight hydroelectric projects will incorporate 2,773 MW, increasing 50% of installed capacity, which is located on the 5,525 MW.

In 2016 they would be operating most of these projects with the aim of hydroelectric energy are the protagonists to replace thermal generation.

In addition, these projects the Andean country will have the most efficient and environmentally friendly world energy matrix, because it will have more than 90% renewable energy from hydropower.

Next year the Ecuadorian government will invest about 3,000 million to finance hydroelectric projects being built in the territory nacional.Solo the construction of the plant Coca Codo Sinclair will allow the country to save $ 600 million annually for the import of fuels.

Brazilian media: Vulture funds presses Petrobras

The American fund Aurelius Capital Management sent a letter to the securities owners (bonds) issued by Petrobras in the US asking them to notify the state that failed to publish by Monday, its financial balance sheet for the third quarter. In a letter obtained by Bloomberg news agency, the "vulture fund" recalls that from any notification, Petrobras has 60 days to publish the balance sheet, or may be declared in technical default.

The letter was sent to US investors holding $ 53.6 billion in bonds of the state. These features are used by the company to finance its investments. According to one analyst, the letter sent by Aurelius is just another "form of pressure" on the state, which has suffered sharp drop in their shares after the discovery of cases of corruption in the company's projects.

In the letter to investors, Aurelius, who still leads the group of so-called "vultures" - hedge funds that buy securities of companies or governments in difficulties - the renegotiation of the debt of Argentina, said Petrobras titles of owners should take a precautionary and notify the state formally.

"If Petrobras has not released its figures for the third quarter in early March, the delay causes may be considerably worse than it is understood today. Regardless, we hope that Petrobras is excluded from the international capital markets until their financial report to be normalized, "the letter said.

According to Bloomberg, the Aurelius invited creditors to inform him how much they have in securities of state before hiring a legal counsel. It is not known if the Aurelius is one of the holders of the bonds.

Petrobras has already postponed the publication of his swing twice. Scheduled for November, was postponed to mid-August. After the deadline has passed to the end of January. For this, Petrobras said it had negotiated with the bond holders the new deadline. That's because Petrobras had the legal requirement of these bondholders to publish the balance sheet (audited or not) today.

More on Brazil Energy 

Argentina freezes electricity rates in Buenos Aires

The government of Argentina seems willing to make a big fiscal effort to prevent electricity rates increase across the country, crucial for the future of President Kirchner. A promise to finance works for governments to maintain electrical ironed ballots in 2015 just added another offer: will be responsible to cover salary increases to be defined in the next joint negotiations in the sector, which should begin in the first quarter . Thus, it will reinforce a trend that began with Edenor and Edesur, the two largest companies in the industry, faced for years a critical situation and need the help of the state to deal with a part of wages.

In recent weeks, several provinces announced that apply increases in light slips from January. But Planning Minister Julio De Vido, drowned those intentions from the outset by extending tariff convergence plan, which on paper arises from agreements between the provinces and the Government. This initiative began earlier this year, is that the Casa Rosada finance works needed to sustain and improve the functioning of the electrical system in the provinces in exchange for distributors do not touch their rates, a challenge in a context of ever-increasing costs.

The plan had some difficulty from the point of view of the governors, especially the delays of planning to turn the funds for the settlement system. Therefore, most provincial helmsmen not want to renew it. However, the ability of conviction De Vido was stronger than the negative.

Until now signed eight provinces. These Jujuy, Tierra del Fuego, Neuquén, Formosa and Jujuy. Yesterday put his name the governor of Buenos Aires, Daniel Scioli.

After the meeting, De Vido said that "the rate convergence means public investment in electrical infrastructure for the entire province of Buenos Aires, but essentially means continue a popular tariff scheme, which encourages and promotes energy consumption, but mainly to improve the quality of life of our people. "

Bolivia to receive less incomes on gas since July 2015

The decrease in revenue of Bolivia for gas exports will affect the country in July 2015, due to the current decline in oil prices, said Vice President Alvaro Garcia, who revealed that sales volumes of energy will be reduced to Brazil and Argentina.

For seven months, the price of light sweet crude in the West Texas Intermediate (WTI) are in free fall by product oversupply and shrinking demand in Asia and Europe. On December 11, the price of a barrel finished below us $ 60 for the first time since July 2009.

On Friday, the WTI whose price is indexed to the value of Bolivian gas export- dropped to $ us 54.73, $ us 19.87 less than budgeted by the government for 2015 (US $ 74.6) and 49% Unless your maximum rate achieved in mid-June this year (US $ 106.91).

"Between January and June we will receive the same thing (same period) last year, there will be problems. From July or August is going to go just noticing the decline in international prices "Oil Garcia said in Caraparí (Tarija), during the delivery of the new infrastructure for mayor of the municipality.

PLAN. The authority considered that the situation is "not to panic" but "yes to worry," so that the government planned to export less gas in 2015 than this year.

"We are a proactive government, always planned a little less. The price (of oil barrel) has reached US $ 50, we calculated budget to $ us 80 but have budgeted (also) minus sales volumes. Instead of being exported 60 million cubic meters per day (MCF), have budgeted 40 MMmcd gas, "said the Vice President.

According to YPFB, in November Bolivia exported to Brazil a "maximum" average of 33.13 MMmcd gas and Argentina, 15.83 MMmcd.

Garcia reiterated that to keep the price of oil to $ us 55, the impact on the country will be about $ US 40 million in 2015, while if commodity prices fall to $ us 30, the reduction in revenue will be approximately $ US 100 million.

Monday, December 29, 2014

Brazil settles wave energy prototype

Technological advances in the Southern Cone. Brazil settled on the coast of Ceará a prototype for generating electricity with waves.

"This small power generation represents a breakthrough, as the Brazilian coast has good conditions for the use of energy due to its proximity to consumers in cities with high population density," the National Electric Energy Agency (Aneel).

Located in Porto do Pecém, 50 kilowatts prototype consists of two modules, each of them has a float, a branch and pump. Once set, contribute to a unique set of turbines, generators and hyperbaric chamber

Argentina began placing buoys in the Southern Ocean to see if you can get electricity currents and tides. A report from Clean Energy XXI stresses that the project is implemented by the company Y-Tec, created by YPF and Conicet in 2012.

Miguel Galuccio, CEO of YPF, said that so far tidal energy has been largely unexplored. "Argentina was seeking energy self-sufficiency," he said.

The buoys were placed in the mouth of the Virgin River Gallegos Cabo. They will measure ocean currents and waves, and will be part of an initiative to explore and use the sea as a source of electricity in the future.

Tidal energy is obtained with the tide: through its connection to an alternator can use the system to generate electricity, transforming wave energy into electrical energy, safer and more usable energy form. It is a type of renewable energy as the primary energy source is not exhausted by its exploitation, and is clean and that no energy transformation products gaseous pollutants solid, liquid or occur. However, the relationship between the amount of energy that can be obtained with current media and economic and environmental cost of installing devices for processing have prevented a significant penetration of this type of energy.

Other ways to extract energy from the sea are: the waves (wave energy) of the temperature difference between the surface and deep waters of the ocean, ocean thermal gradient; salinity, ocean currents and offshore wind energy.

Italian Enel Green Power launched photovoltaic plants in Chile

The Italian company Enel Green Power (EGP), a subsidiary of Enel dedicated to renewables said it has launched three new photovoltaic plants in Chile, an operation that involved a total investment of 279 million euros (US $ 240 million). The company, which is listed on both the Milan Stock Exchange and in Madrid, has been reported in a statement that it has connected to the network Chilean plants Lalackama and Chañares and also launched the last 4 megawatts (MW ) of Diego de Almagro park. Lalackama with 60 MW of installed capacity, is the largest photovoltaic plant Enel Green Power and is able to generate up to 160 GWh per year, equivalent to the consumption needs of 90,000 households and avoiding Chilean thus broadcast to the atmosphere of more than 100,000 tons of carbon dioxide. Furthermore, Chañares plant has a capacity of about 40 MW and is capable of generating up to 94 GWh per annum, which corresponds to the consumption requirements of 53,000 households, more reducing the amount of 59,000 tons of CO2 emitted.

The total investment for the construction of the new plant was EUR 81 million (US $ 70 million). Meanwhile, with the launch of the last 4 MW of Diego de Almagro is completed the operation of this plant with a total installed capacity of 36 MW and comprises some 225,000 modules, most "thin". The park is capable of generating up to 80 GWh per year, equivalent to the consumption needs of 45,000 households, avoiding the emission into the atmosphere of more than 50,000 tons of CO2. For the construction of the park a total investment of around EUR 69 million (US $ 60 million) has been necessary. EGP recalled that these projects "is associated with a long-term purchase of energy produced," which will go to Central Interconnection System (SIC).

See also Solar Plant in Chile

Rame Energy plans Chile solar plant

UK firm Rame Energy is planning to build a US$6.4mn solar plant 300km north of Chilean capital
In the project's first phase it would have a capacity of 2.5MW. It is expected to start operating
by the fourth quarter of 2015, subject to financing, the company said in a release.
Full connection studies and permitting are scheduled to get under way by the end of March.
"Along with our first six wind projects in Chile totaling 133MW which are now at various stages
of development, this project will play an important part in establishing a mixed portfolio of 300MW
within the next three years," Rame CEO Tim Adams said.
Rame said it was already negotiating a 15-year power purchase agreement with an existing customer.
Source: BNAmericas.com

Editorial & Opinion: New Energy sources in Paraguay

The economic growth of a nation is closely linked to its ability to produce energy. It is therefore crucial to develop strategies and programs for power generation, both through the exploitation of water resources-there is a plan to build small hydropower in the interior of the country and other environmentally sustainable sources.

President Horacio Cartes took a few days before the opening of the first generating wind energy (from wind) and solar plant in our country does. The plant is located in the town of Joel Estigarribia, seat of the First Cavalry Division, in the Chaco, about 600 kilometers from the capital. Equipped with 160 solar panels, the facility will supply electricity to the aforementioned military unit and the surrounding population.

The project had a final cost of $ 450,000, a figure much lower than that which would extend the defendant Ande service to that area, estimated at US $ 13 million. Clearly, these plants may be a response to remote locations within the country, for its low cost and the short time involved in its construction, in this case just six months. The initiative was made possible thanks to financial and technical support and Itaipu is excellent news in several ways.

First, although our country has one of the highest yields per capita energy world, the search for new sources of clean energy is of strategic importance for Paraguay. Itaipu Hydroelectric and Yacyretá generate a huge amount of energy, but even still the largest in the world, have a roof that will be reached sooner or later.

The fact that electricity demand is completely covered today, does not mean that the State failed to anticipate future needs and begin to investigate the most appropriate ways to generate more energy. The economic growth of a nation is closely linked to its ability to produce energy. It should also aim at attracting new investment and capital and installation companies to achieve an economic growth rate accelerated and harmonious.

As with other commodities, which best interest of the country is not exporting energy but use it to develop the national productive apparatus by electro-intensive industries. It is therefore crucial to develop strategies and programs for power generation, both through the exploitation of water resources-there is a plan to build small hydropower in the interior of the country and other environmentally sustainable sources.

Do not forget that much of the energy consumed in Paraguay has not renewable organic origin, such as charcoal. The commitment to wind energy and solar has and will have great prospects for the coming years, especially since they are harmless to the environment, unlike fossil fuels, a key factor of climate change and global warming.

Second, the opening of wind and solar plant in the Chaco highlighted the need to promote research and scientific knowledge about energy and its production. The National University of Asunción (UNA) and Itaipu undertook to establish a new career in power engineering.

This is expected not only to provide managers and highly skilled workforce to manage and hydroelectric power generation plants from other sources, but also develop their own technical and technological capacity a key area for the future of the nation, the continent and the world.

Source: La Nación (Paraguay)

See also Solar Wind Hybrid plant in Chaco

Paraguay launches solar wind hybrid plant in Chaco

The first power wind-solar hybrid plant was inaugurated today in Paraguay by President Horacio Cartes, at the headquarters of the 1st. Cavalry Division, in Joel Estigarribia, Department of Boqueron. Paraguayan Chaco.

Thus, the Chief of the plant put into operation generating wind energy (from wind) and solar, ceremony was also attended by high civil and military national authorities as well as the Paraguayan general director of the Itaipu Binational Entity, James Spalding. Incidentally, this is a project implemented by the Itaipu Technological Park, in that distant village Chaco more than 600 miles from capital city.

Source: La Nación (Paraguay)

Mexico: President Enrique Peña Nieto launches Energy Reforms (video)

Mexico: President Enrique Peña Nieto launches Energy Reforms (video) Mexican President Enrique Pena Nieto signed a package of laws that will serve as a rule book for comprehensive energy reform, privatizing previously public industries


More on Mexico Energy

Mexico to develop technology to produce light crude

The Mexican Petroleum Institute (IMP) developed a technology that can produce light crude from heavy crude with low costs both investment and operation and attractive returns.

In a statement, said that the process called hydro-IMP has significant economic and operational advantages over conventional technologies and is the best choice for the best use of heavy crudes.

According to the IMP, this procedure hydrogen uptake is based crude oil, which improves its physical properties to facilitate refining and increase its value.

In this regard, he noted that in Mexico heavy crudes are approximately 54 percent of total production, so that the technology meets the need of solving the problems of transport and processing hydrocarbons such.

"The implementation of HYDRO-IMP represents economic benefits of over 30 percent compared with conventional processes," he said.

The process and catalyst of this development are patented in Mexico, United States, Singapore, Russia and Australia, and patent pending in other countries.

The institute said the product has been thoroughly evaluated in pilot plants, as well as through one semindustrial test various heavy crude at a plant in New Jersey, United States.

He explained that crude properties were improved constant and slightly higher than expected, while the conversion and formation of sediments also remained controlled and under the expected parameters, demonstrating the technical feasibility of this process.

"The control of these parameters allows to avoid problems of excessive increase in pressure drop, which is one of the challenges in such systems, which are achieved by incorporating folded special elements in the reactor."

He said that among its main applications include the conversion of heavy and extra heavy crude into intermediate crude higher value on the market, either to increase quality or to transport and pretreatment of heavy and extra heavy crude before being fed to the refinery.

Source: Mercamerica (Spain)

See also Mexico to receive US$15mn investment

Mexico to receive US$15mn Energy investment in 2015

In 2015, Mexico will be in the crosshairs of investors. Everything points to one of the best years in attracting Foreign Direct Investment (FDI).

Is expected to reach 10,000 million in the telecommunications and energy 15,000 million.
There are many reasons to believe that this is possible with the approval of the reforms in both sectors, but it is also true that without some changes, such as legal and personal security, could be canceled.

In telecommunications, in the first quarter, reversing AT & T will materialize with the purchase of Iusacell. There are 2,500 billion, according to announcement by Grupo Salinas.
To this the decision of the Federal Telecommunications Institute (IFT) on the two winners of the concessions for the two broadcasters will be added.

Process in which, if nothing extraordinary, will be delivered to Cadena Tres, owned by Olegario Vazquez Aldir, and Grupo Radio Centro, headed Francisco Aguirre.

The final decision will bring the investments of more than 20 billion pesos, about 1,400 billion sector.
To this investment than other industry groups will be performing in triple play will be added. Speaks, for example, MVS Group, chaired by Joaquin Vargas, will be investing in the sector to offer new services through Dish.

Grupo Televisa and TV Azteca will also move their pieces, to strengthen its presence. Izzi both, as TotalPlay.

To this we must add that Telmex, Carlos Slim, will not loose its position with its internet services and video Infinitum (Clarovideo). That is, the Telecom, will be seeing a battle of giants, and many changes will be defined in the first six months of 2015.

In the energy sector, things are looking to attract tens of investments. However, they will be arriving until the second half of the year.

The process must wait several events in Mexico and one of them are local and federal elections in July, where Congress (deputies) and several governorships will be renewed.

Another issue that energy companies must face is the rise in oil prices. Analysts anticipate that some of the decisions to be taken in this area have to do with the petroprecios. The issue is that if they continue to fall, will have to wait for a better scenario.

Ie energy investment is ready to enter Mexico, but they will not step if conditions do not improve, even the issue of insecurity.

We know that Shell, for example, has the thermometer of what happens in the social and political environment. It depends bet your capital in Mexico. Other companies, mainly from the US, Mexico also had the radar. For now, the table is set, but do not declare victory.

Source: Economía Hoy

Oil & Gas: Brazilian ANP approves revision of the Marlim Leste Development Plan, Petrobras

The Brazilian National Agency of Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuels (ANP) approved the revision of the Marlim Leste field Development Plan, situated in one of the major producing areas of the Campos Basin, and operated by Petrobras.

The approval of the new plan, published on Friday on the agency website, provides technical assistance to enhance production, such as drilling at least eight wells, among producers and injectors, installation of new equipment and evaluations of possible geological potential.

Marlim Leste was discovered in 1987 in the northern coast of Rio de Janeiro state, about 120 kilometers off the coast. It is among the most important producing areas of the country and was responsible, in October, for almost 6% of the production of 739,500 barrels of oil and the Brazilian pre-salt gas.

The plan also determines the maintenance of floating platform FPSO (production, storage and oil transfer) Niterói city in the country, or other unit in lieu thereof, to the end of the contract period.
According to the plan, "(there) remains a clear need for at least two production platforms in the field."


Concerned about the drop in production in several important areas of the Campos Basin, the ANP previously determined additional contributions of state oil company, which is presenting the review of several areas development plans.


Other important fields of the Campos Basin as Albacora, Marlim, Marlim Sul and Roncador were also revisions of approved development plans recently.
While seeking to ensure that Petrobras avoid the decline in production in important areas, the ANP does not determine the volume of investment needed for this.
Petrobras does not immediately answered requests for information, such as what are the investments and the practical results from the new development plan.

OIL & GAS: Venezuela's secret plan to defeat oil crack

Despite the drop in foreign exchange earnings by low oil prices, the national government of Venezuela can be conducted in various ways to generate more money. Economists propose some measures and analyze the cost of others that have been announced.

1. Increase production.
According to economist Pedro Palma, one of the first things the government should do is raise levels of oil production in the country with the revival of so-called marginal fields and improving productivity in fields that have been forgotten. He argues that must restore agreements with qualified companies.

2. Upload gasoline.
The rising price of gasoline was mentioned several times this year, but not finished concrete. Economists say the price should sincerar now more so now. The lag between rates and the cost of production throws an annual loss of 12.5 billion dollars PDVSA, according to official figures.

3. Reduce shipments.
Reviewing energy cooperation agreements that the country is another thing you should do the government, experts agree. Point to the need to reduce to a minimum the subsidized sale of oil through Petrocaribe, Alba and direct sales to Cuba, is considered a transaction that generate very little cash flow.

4. Sale of Citgo.
In August it was announced the possible sale of Citgo, a subsidiary of PDVSA in the United States. Then he was dismissed by Finance Minister Rodolfo Marco Torres, but unofficial sources claim that the sale continues and could take 7 billion. The economist Pedro Palma believes that the transaction would be a mistake because a good strategic nature would be lost.

5. Sell debt.
Circulated recently that Venezuela had sold investment bank Goldman Sachs Dominican Republic the amount owed by oil sales. Although the information has not been confirmed, economists say the government can do to fit currencies, but agree that when invoices the country loses a lot of money traded.

Source: El Nacional (Venezuela)

OIL & GAS.- Potential oil reserves of Lliquimuni is five times the current reserves of Chaco and Andina

The potential oil reserves of Lliquimuni is five times the current reserves of Chaco and Andina, so YPFB plans to build a refinery in La Paz. The gas containing the block (1 TCF ) represents 10% of the country's proven reserves.

The interpretation of the 2D seismic test conducted by YPFB Petroandina SAM ( SA Mixed ) formed by YPFB (YPFB ) and Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA ) confirmed the presence of crude oil and natural gas in commercially exploitable nontraditional area Lliquimuni ( north of La Paz) . Until 2012, the exploration of block require an investment of US $ 171.6 million .

The studies "have identified two structures of interest on a closed area of 156 square kilometers (km2) : Lliquimuni Lliquimuni Central and North . The volumes associated structures are estimated at 50 million barrels ( MMbbl ) of oil and one trillion cubic feet (TCF) of gas", revealed Petroandina CEO , Miguel Angel Pradel .

Between 2008 and 2010, the binational company invested $ 102 million in duties us seismic survey , surface geology and magnetotelluric studies in Lliquimuni block ( located on an area of ​​6,750 km2 which are distributed among the provinces Franz Tamayo, Sud Yungas , and Caranavi Larecaja ) .
This year it invested $ US 9.6 million in the interpretation of seismic data and announced that it will invest "over US $ 60 million" for the drilling Lliquimuni Center X-1 ( LQMC X-1 ) to be located between the provinces Caranavi and Larecaja .

"Although the goal ( the project) is to drill the well to a depth of 4,300 meters, we expect no problems, because the topography (from Lliquimuni ) is not as difficult as in the South Subandino" stated YPFB president, Carlos Villegas.

OIL AND GAS.- Bolivia to launch oil exploration in Lliquimuni

Seismic exploration began in 2009 and required an investment of 102 million dollars. Yesterday, President Evo Morales announced Tuesday inspected the hole 30 which was acquired for oil exploration in the northern department of La Paz is performed. During the delivery of a coliseum in the eighth district of the city of El Alto, the president said that flooding by overflowing rivers earlier this year damaged the oil exploration project . " In two days in the northern La Paz Lliquimuni, better known as drill for oil is installed, the 30th of this month we will make an inspection and verification to begin drilling in the northern La Paz and find the oil for the department of La Paz and Bolivia " . The objective is to find oil would serve to increase the production of diesel and reduce its subsidy. The results are expected in December 2016 if there is oil in place or not. Exploration and drilling . The seismic exploration project , conducted between February 2009 and February 2010, required an investment of $ 102 million . Carlos Villegas , president of YPFB , subsequently announced the discovery of a trillion cubic feet ( TCF ) of gas and 50 million barrels of oil into two subsurface structures Lliquimuni block . Seismic surveying Block Lliquimuni , is considered the largest among the studies conducted so far, with fieldwork in 1,093 line kilometers . According to reports, the drilling of the first oil well , is calculated , require an investment of $ 60 million . Note that it is the first time that the state oil acquires a drill capable of drilling to a depth of 5500 meters . Equipment purchased is rated at 2,000 HP ( horsepower ) for this work .

PETRÓLEO.- Presidente de Bolivia anuncia explotación de crudo al Norte de La Paz

Evo Morales anunció esta semana la pronta explotación del bloque Lliquimuni, al norte de La Paz, donde YPFB espera encontrar petróleo y gas.

PETRÓLEO.- Presidente de Bolivia anuncia explotación de crudo al Norte de La Paz
El presidente Evo Morales informó sobre el inicio de la exploración petrolera en el pozo Lliquimuni, al norte del departamento de La Paz.
"El taladro, más conocido como perforador para buscar petróleo, está instalado. El 30 de este mes vamos a hacer una inspección para empezar ya a perforar en el norte paceño y encontrar el petróleo para el departamento de La Paz y para Bolivia", dijo en un acto en que entregó un coliseo en el Distrito 8 de El Alto.
“Tenemos buena información para encontrar el petróleo”, añadió Morales.
Según Yacimientos Petrolíferos Fiscales Bolivianos (YPFB), hasta mediados de 2015 se sabrá si hay petróleo y gas en el Bloque Lliquimuni, una prolongación del gigantesco campo Camisea de Perú.
Las tareas exploratorias en Lliquimuni comenzaron en 2008, a cargo de YPFB Petroandina, la sociedad anónima mixta integrada por las petroleras estatales de Bolivia y PDVSA de Venezuela.
De forma paralela a la perforación del pozo Lliquimuni, YPFB realizará trabajos de sísmica 3D en Beni y Pando en la perspectiva de incrementar las reservas de hidrocarburos.
Las reservas probadas de gas natural de Bolivia, certificadas por la empresa canadiense GLJ Petroleum Consultants al 31 de diciembre de 2013, alcanzan a 10.45 trillones de pies cúbicos.

ELECTRICIDAD.- Gobierno de Argentina reconoció crisis energética hace tres años

ELECTRICIDAD, artículo.- Una minuta interna de la empresa mixta Cammesa cuestionaba en 2011 el futuro energético del país, estableciendo que ya entre 2003 y esa fecha se había funcionado en estado de "emergencia operativa".

Energía: un informe oficial admitía la grave crisis

La gestión pública le permitió a Julio De Vido adquirir una gimnasia especial en el oficio de la negación. Durante los años más duros de la crisis energética, el ministro de Planificación debió ejercitarlo muchas veces. Lo hizo en el invierno de 2010 y en los veranos de 2011, 2012 y 2013, sólo por poner algunos ejemplos.
En septiembre de 2006, cuando aún no había estallado la disputa con el Grupo Clarín, estuvo en el programa A dos voces (que emite los miércoles Todo Noticias, el canal de cable del grupo) y declaró con énfasis: "Habrá energía en abundancia".
Al mismo tiempo, documentos de Cammesa, la empresa mixta que administra el sector eléctrico y en la cual De Vido tomaba las principales decisiones, cuestionaban con datos técnicos esa afirmación. Uno de los años más críticos fue, justamente, 2006.
Una serie de comunicaciones internas, informes de riesgo y notas a las que tuvo acceso LA NACION confirman que entre 2003 y 2011 el sistema eléctrico funcionó en estado de "emergencia operativa" (es el término que usaron los técnicos para describir la situación) en el sector de generación. Es decir, el área donde actúan las empresas encargadas de producir la electricidad, que luego se transporta por las redes de distribución a todos los consumidores finales, incluyendo fábricas, comercios y hogares. Esos informes luego se discontinuaron.
Una nota de Cammesa describe la emergencia operativa como la situación que ocurre cuando la generación eléctrica disponible "remanente", luego de "ingresar toda la generación necesaria para satisfacer la demanda, queda en valores mínimos o cero".
Una pequeña tabla elaborada por técnicos del Estado muestra con crudeza la profundidad de la crisis energética en los últimos años.
En 2004, cuando el kirchnerismo recién comenzaba a tomar dimensión de la situación, en el 46% de los días hábiles del año se registró al menos una de las situaciones que hacen a la emergencia operativa. El número bajó al 27% al año siguiente, pero escaló al 63% en 2007 y alcanzó el 71% en el crítico 2008, el peor año de la crisis. En 2011, ese número se redujo al 26%, todavía muy alto.
"Esto significa que el sistema eléctrico ha estado operando, en términos medios, al menos la mitad de los días hábiles del año en situaciones de emergencia operativa", detalló uno de los informes de Cammesa, que ahora está bajo el control del ministro de Economía, Axel Kicillof.
Los técnicos del Gobierno estimaron que la principal causa de la reducida reserva térmica del sistema (la que generan usinas de electricidad que funcionan principalmente a gas) se debió a la "falta de combustible", otra de las patas flojas del sistema energético durante el kirchnerismo.
En otros términos, por la caída en la producción de gas, el incremento de la demanda en hogares y las demoras para hacerse de combustibles sustitutos, como el gasoil y el fueloil, que la Argentina importó en cantidades multimillonarias en casi toda la década.
"Sin esta reserva, ante la salida de servicio de cualquier generador, a los efectos de abastecer la demanda debe recurrirse a la utilización de reservas hidráulicas de los embalses o a la reducción de la demanda a través de la reducción de tensión o de acuerdos programados con los agentes", lamenta Cammesa en otro de sus textos.
Los llamados "acuerdos" son, en realidad, cortes en el suministro eléctrico que sufren las empresas cuando la energía producida no alcanza para cubrir toda la demanda, con el objeto de dar prioridad al abastecimiento en los hogares y en servicios públicos esenciales.
Los documentos internos del Gobierno recuerdan 2007 como uno de los peores años en materia de suministro eléctrico, si bien tal cosa nunca fue informada oficialmente.
"El año 2007 resultó uno de los más fríos de la serie histórica, presentando consecuentemente una elevada demanda de energía eléctrica durante el invierno. Este hecho, junto con la disminución de la oferta de gas a usinas por la misma causa y períodos de baja disponibilidad del parque térmico, provocó situaciones de emergencia de gran profundidad durante todo el período."

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PETRÓLEO.- Bolivia admite duro efecto de la caída del precio del crudo

PETRÓLEO, artículo.- Gobierno de Bolivia, a través del presidente de la petrolera estatal Yacimientos Petrolíferos Fiscales Bolivianos (YPFB), reconoció que la caída en el precio del crudo impactará fuertemente en su economía.

La caída del crudo impactará en Bolivia

El presidente de la estatal Yacimientos Petrolíferos Fiscales Bolivianos (YPFB), Carlos Villegas, reconoció que la situación de la economía del país podría tornarse "delicada" si continúa la baja del precio del petróleo.
En una entrevista publicada ayer por el matutino Página Siete, Villegas indicó que Bolivia podrá amortiguar los efectos de la caída del precio del crudo durante el primer semestre de 2015 debido al sistema para calcular el costo del gas natural que se exporta a la Argentina y Brasil. No obstante, señaló que "la situación podría tornarse más delicada si el precio continúa bajando".
Bolivia no exporta petróleo, pero su economía se sostiene en las ventas de gas natural a Brasil y la Argentina, a un precio que se ajusta trimestralmente en función de las variaciones del crudo.
Para fijar el costo del gas natural que se vende a la Argentina se tiene en cuenta el promedio del precio del crudo del trimestre anterior, y en el caso de Brasil, se toma en consideración el promedio del semestre previo, explicó Villegas. Por ello, insistió en que los efectos de la caída del precio del petróleo "van a ser leves" en una primera fase, pero se sentirán "en términos de ingresos" si continúa la caída.
Señaló que quienes resultarán afectados "en la medida en que exista una disminución van a ser los gobiernos subnacionales", puesto que la renta petrolera se distribuye entre las gobernaciones regionales, municipios, el Tesoro nacional y YPFB. Aunque, agregó, "la disminución de precios no implica que vaya a ser una situación de largo plazo".
Con todo, según Villegas, esta situación también presenta "una oportunidad importante para Bolivia", pues con estos precios bajos las reservas de petróleo no convencional de Vaca Muerta en la Argentina y de Presal en Brasil dejarán de ser rentables. "Por lo tanto, no son competitivos para nosotros y tenemos una oportunidad de no solamente seguir entregando el gas que estamos entregando, sino tal vez de aumentar la exportación (a ambos mercados)", añadió. La Argentina compra alrededor de 15,8 millones de metros cúbicos diarios de gas natural boliviano y Brasil, unos 33 millones de metros cúbicos diarios, según informó YPFB la semana pasada. Estos países pagaron entre enero y noviembre de este año un total de US$ 5513 millones a YPFB por la compra de gas natural.
Otra consecuencia de la caída del precio del crudo será que Bolivia podrá ahorrar entre 150 y 200 millones de dólares por la importación de naftas y gasoil, señaló Villegas. El gobierno boliviano compra combustibles a varios países a precios internacionales y en el mercado interno se venden con precios subvencionados.

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ENERGÍA SOLAR.- Chile podría proveer a todo el mundo a través del Desierto de Atacama

ENERGÍA SOLAR, entrevista.- Gerente de Negocios y empresas de la Fundación Chile, explica que utilizando una mínima parte de la superficie del Desierto de Atacama como fuente de energía solar, Chile podría resolver su demanda. Como comparación, el uso del 98% de la superficie fiscal del mismo sitio, podría satisfacer la demanda mundial.  

"En diez años, el potencial solar nos podría permitir autonomía energética"

El sol podría proveer de energía a todo Chile solo ocupando el 0,3% de las tierras fiscales disponibles en el desierto de Atacama. Y a todo el mundo si utiliza el 98% de ese territorio. Eso sí, antes se debe eliminar las trabas existentes tanto en transmisión como en almacenamiento de la energía que proviene de fuentes no convencionales.

De eso está seguro Andrés Pesce, gerente de negocios y empresas en Fundación Chile. Así como este organismo apostó en 1982 por Salmones Antártica, que en 31 años creció hasta alcanzar US$ 3.500 millones en exportaciones en 2013 dando fe al mercado de la rentabilidad del negocio; ahora pone las fichas en la energía solar. En 2010, junto a un grupo de inversionistas privados, creó Solar Chile, empresa que desarrolla Luz del Norte, planta de 141 MW que inyectará al mercado spot , y que en 2012 fue comprada por la estadounidense First Solar. "¿Imaginas dónde podemos estar en 30 años si como país nos subimos hoy a la curva de aprendizaje de la energía solar?", se pregunta.

Pesce asegura que en los próximos 10 o 15 años existirán desarrollos tecnológicos que permitirán almacenar esta energía y competir de igual a igual con otros tipos de energía base. "En ese período, el potencial solar nos podría permitir autonomía energética e incluso podríamos exportar a otros países", dice. "Chile tiene condiciones inigualables", admite. El país cuenta con la mayor radiación solar del planeta, dispone de tierras, cuenta con demanda de energía -proveniente de la minería- cerca de las fuentes de generación y tiene grandes posibilidades de ser un gran aporte al desarrollo de tecnologías para mejorar la eficiencia de esta fuente.

Ver artículo completo en El Mercurio (Chile)